Citation Styles

Various citation styles are used in academic writing to give credit to sources and provide consistency in documenting references. Here's a brief overview of some common citation styles:

  1. APA (American Psychological Association):
    • Often used in the social sciences.
    • Emphasizes author-date citation.
    • Includes the author's last name and the publication year in the in-text citation.
    • APA References & Sample Paper
  2. MLA (Modern Language Association):
    • Commonly used in the humanities.
    • Emphasizes author-page citation.
    • Includes the author's last name and the page number in the in-text citation.
    • MLA References & Sample Paper
  3. Chicago/Turabian:
    • Chicago style is used in various disciplines, while Turabian is a simplified version often used in history and social sciences.
    • Includes two documentation systems: notes and bibliography or author-date.
    • Uses footnotes or endnotes for in-text citations.
    • Chicago Style Referencing Guide
    • Chicago Style Sample Paper
  4. Harvard:
    • Common in the UK and Australia.
    • Similar to APA, uses author-date citation.
    • Includes the author's last name and the publication year in the in-text citation.
    • Harvard Style Guide & Sample Paper
  5. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers):
    • Commonly used in technical fields, especially in engineering and computer science.
    • Uses a numerical citation system, with references listed in order of citation.
    • IEEE Referencing Guide
  6. OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities):
    • Primarily used in legal writing and related fields.
    • Provides a comprehensive system for citing legal authorities, including cases, statutes, and legal literature.
    • Uses footnotes for citations, with a bibliography for additional references.
    • Requires precise details, including pinpoint references, to accurately locate legal sources.
    • Oxford (OSCOLA) Referencing Guide
  7. AMA (American Medical Association):
  8. CSE (Council of Science Editors):
    • Common in the natural sciences.
    • Uses a numeric or name-year citation system.
    • Includes a reference list at the end of the document.
    • CSE Style Sample Paper
  9. Vancouver:
    • Commonly used in biomedical sciences.
    • Uses a numeric citation system.
    • References are listed numerically in the order they appear in the text.
    • Vancouver Referencing Guide
  10. AP (Associated Press):
    • Primarily used in journalism.
    • Simplified style with a focus on clarity and brevity.
    • Typically uses author's name and publication date in the in-text citation.
    • AP (Associated Press) Referencing Guide

Each citation style has its specific rules for formatting citations, creating reference lists, and citing different types of sources. It's essential to follow the guidelines of the style specified by the student in the order instructions.